Even if the designer and user models are perfectly aligned in the planning phase, there is no assurance that the operational work system will replicate the models that were intended. The design and production of a large-scale work system can involve hundreds of designers, engineers, programmers, program managers, and a host of other personnel responsible for manufacturing budgeting, contracting, maintenance, and support. These people will be employed by different organizations, each with its own processes, policies, and procedures, many of which may be proprietary and inaccessible by other organizations.