With unique structure, auto-desilting galleries are a kind of novel high-efficiency desilting facilities. Their application in the channels of the Yellow River pumping project in Donglei irrigation area, Shaanxi Province and the Yellow River pumping project in Zuncun irrigation area, Shanxi Province showed quite evident sedimentation reduction effect. In this paper, the composition and structures of an auto-desilting gallery were introduced comprehensively, and the influence of the gallery on the water flow in the canal and the influence of each structure of the gallery on sediment transport were discussed based on experimental analysis; it was believed that the composition structures of a gallery play their respective irreplaceable roles in high-efficiency sediment transport, providing driving power for sediment transport. Finally, the application prospect of auto-desilting galleries was envisaged.