This chapter examines compulsory purchase in developing, emerging, and transition countries. It draws on a particular source: namely the Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF) analyses carried out by the World Bank since 2011. The LGAF developed by the World Bank is intended as a "diagnostic tool to help evaluate the legal framework, policies, and practices regarding land governance and to monitor improvement over time". The newly independent countries were offered an alternative approach to land management, namely that offered by the Soviet Union. In Nigeria land expropriated for residential purposes frequently ends up in private hands, and the share of agricultural lands acquired by commercial farmers and developers appears to be increasing. The compensation could, in principle, include mitigation works, for instance noise barriers or animal-proof fencing, or transfers of rights to other land where activities are not restricted rather than a cash payment.