Real estate expropriation for public needs is quite a common practice in Russia. This chapter focuses on analyzing the statutory regulation and practice of real estate expropriation for State and municipal needs applied to the development of public infrastructural facilities and in certain other circumstances. Land plots are expropriated for State and municipal needs based on the common grounds listed under Article 49 of the Russian Land Code. The general real estate expropriation procedures are primarily set within the Russian Land Code. Expropriation of a land plot is antecedent and in accordance with the Russian Civil Code which provides grounds for the forced divestiture of other real estate located on that land plot. An analysis of legal practice materials has shown that the most common disputes related to real estate expropriation for State or municipal needs are disputes regarding the amount of compensation for the real estate to be expropriated.