Consumption of mineral resources has continuously increased with the expansion of industries, urbanization and population growth. Although economic development of a nation is closely linked with mining, the process has not proved to be environment friendly. Mining operations often require large scale excavation and removal of fertile topsoil, resulting in altered nutrient availability, water holding capacity and temperature regimes in the soil horizons. A considerable quantity of mine spoil is generated, which over time becomes sterile and nutrient deficient with little or no microbial colonization. These spoil dumps are invariably without vegetation. Therefore, reclamation of the mine spoil requires nutrient enrichment, which could ideally be achieved through suitable amendments with organic manures and bio-fertilizers. Eco-restoration through organic amendments of mine wastes has been successfully attempted worldwide. These amendments have resulted in sustainable microbial colonization and re-vegetation, thus minimizing desertification.