Ultrasound scan (USS) assessment plays a significant role in patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. In this chapter, the authors focus on how conditions are diagnosed on USS. They discuss their impact on subfertility and ART treatment and the various treatment options available. The major cause of tubal occlusion is pelvic inflammatory disease secondary to ascending infection from sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The main treatment options for hydrosalpinx prior to IVF treatment are laparoscopic salpingectomy, laparoscopic or hysteroscopic proximal tubal occlusion, and transvaginal aspiration of hydrosalpingeal fluid with or without sclerotherapy. Proximal occlusion of the fallopian tube isolates the hydrosalpingeal fluid from the uterine cavity and is an alternative to salpingectomy. Transvaginal aspiration of hydrosalpinx is done usually at the time of oocyte collection under USS guidance when the patient is under sedation. Ovarian cysts are common findings in women of reproductive age and are often incidentally found during investigations for ART treatment.