Recent improvements in ultrasound technology have significantly enhanced our knowledge of normal uterine physiology. Due to its central location, relatively large size, and distinct shape, the uterus is usually the landmark in the ultrasound examination of the female pelvis. The basic examination of the uterus starts with the assessment of uterine morphology and the myometrium. Uterine fibroids are benign tumors of the smooth muscle and are the most common benign pathology of the uterus. The ultrasound appearance of fibroids varies, but most commonly they present as well-defined, echo-dense, single or multiple uterine tumors. The development of three-dimensional ultrasound techniques has allowed for better visualization of the junctional zone. The female reproductive system develops in the embryo from the urogenital sinus and two paramesonephric ducts. Clinical studies evaluating the importance of Doppler angiographic indices as tools for the evaluation of endometrial receptivity have been published, but the predictive value of resistance indices is limited.