The introduction of rapid bacterial counting procedures will also be of assistance in process control, thereby reducing wastage due to inadequate product quality and enabling more efficiently planned production. An attempt will be made to highlight the possible applications of bioluminescence methodology to the dairy industry, indicating advantages and pitfalls. The good sensitivity of the assay coupled with its speed and accuracy make the test of great potential use to the dairy industry. As with other sectors of the food industry, milk processors have sought more rapid methods to assess raw material and product quality. Of all the novel microbial counting procedures introduced, the one which arguably offers the best chance of an extremely rapid result is based on estimation of microbial Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Detection of bacteria at such low levels is difficult even with conventional tests and is impossible using ATP technology.