This chapter provides a general overview of the global energy and climate landscape. The current statistics and scientific consensus on climate risks are summarized. Links to other environmental issues are also discussed, along with the state of international efforts to manage the crisis. Finally, decarbonization technologies are discussed. The chapter concludes by considering the potential role of Process Integration (PI), Pinch Analysis (PA), and specifically Carbon Emissions Pinch Analysis (CEPA) as decision support tools for carbon management.