Fortification of food with essential minerals aims to prevent micro- and macroelemental deficiencies in humans. This chapter highlights the importance of minerals, which are a tool to prevent micronutrient deficiencies, also referred to as "hidden hunger" because these deficiencies are often not clinically visible. It provides the general overview of fortification technologies. The chapter also presents examples of food fortification with calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, selenium, iodine, and fluorine. One of the criteria that must be met by fortified food is the stability of the added nutrients under customary conditions of packing, storage, distribution, and use. Mineral fortification of animal feed can be useful in increasing the content of micro- and macroelements in animal products. Biofortification aims at developing nutrient-rich versions of staple crops that have already been consumed by poor communities. Two approaches—conventional breeding and genetic engineering techniques—can be used to biofortify crops such as wheat, rice, pear millet, bean, maize, cassava, and sweet potato with zinc and iron.