With the advancements and understanding in the elds of microbial physiology and molecular biology, followed by the extensive role of genetics, ultimately resulting in the isolation of DNA, has completely changed the concept and role of microorganisms in the production of healthcare products. Although the ultimate outcome of these ndings resulted in the production of a host of products, the rst one which came into the picture was “insulin,” developed through genetic engineering. The in-depth studies involved in resolving the structure of DNA provided a great hope and toll to scientists to use advanced biotechnological techniques for the removal of DNA from one region of the genome and transport the DNA in a controlled way to another region of the same DNA, or DNA in a completely different organism for more economic gain and benets by expanding the role and type of products in substantial quantities. In the current scenario, the use of microorganisms as biotechnological agents and the technology of prot have not only continued but have exclusively increased. Indeed, the biotechnology sector, as it is recognized today, is already a multibillion dollar sector worldwide. With these objectives, some of the major microbial healthcare products have been taken into consideration to study and to provide reasonable information to highlight their signicance in the human healthcare system.