Spring pygmy sunfish is an AL endemic species represented by small sustaining populations in two small Tennessee River tributaries in northern AL.

The species was discovered in Cave Spring (Lauderdale County) in 1937, but that population was extirpated by completion of Pickwick Dam and the filling of Pickwick Reservoir. Another population, subsequently discovered in Pryor Branch (Limestone County), was eliminated in 1940 by runoff from heavy agriculture in the surrounding watershed, aquatic plant removal in contributing springs, and game fish stocking.