By the late 1980s, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (referred to as “fibrils” by Hyperion Catalysis) and carbon nanofibers (Applied Sciences Inc.) were being manufactured in several gram size quantities, which was sufficient for testing composite samples. Although the spectacular estimates of enhanced strength and modulus from single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) probably had not been appreciated at that time, it was supposed by many researchers that enhanced mechanical properties might be attainable by adding carbon nanomaterials of different types to polymer composites.