Relational database technology offers many advantages over traditional, nonrelational forms of database technology. Relational databases incorporate a higher level of abstraction and therefore use logical data models that are easier to create, understand, and maintain. This chapter provides some pros and cons on relational conversion so that organizations may decide whether or not relational systems suit their needs. It aims to compare programming in relational database environments with programming in file processing and nonrelational database environments. A typical database management system provides features that shield file organization from application programs. The conversion of a file structure to a relational structure is straightforward, particularly if the old files are well designed. Programs can be written to automatically convert files from the old to the new structure. The conversion of hierarchical or network databases is more difficult because records are related by embedded pointer rather than by common fields.