This book has attempted to set out the general framework of the ongoing use of forensic evidence in the criminal justice system. Forensic evidence, simply stated, is a body of factual material generated by a large body of forensic sciences to serve as evidence in criminal prosecutions. Due to the scientific bases of the processes used to generate any such testimony by forensic experts, each of the forensic sciences must continue to justify the basis for any class or individual-characteristic linkage testimony proffered in a case. As evidenced by the recent rejection of earprint evidence and the ready

acceptance of lip-print testimony, discussed in Chapter 8, the challenge to the claims of the forensic sciences continues unabated.