When not focused on addressing corruption and allegations of bias, harassment, and brutality, much police reform since the 1960s can be characterized as a slow movement away from the professional model (Kelling and Moore, 1988). Much of this reform can be seen as an attempt to escape the rigidity associated with the paramilitary organizational structure and overcome the limits bureaucratic structures have imposed on flexible, effective, longterm solutions to crime. One area of focus is the promotion of greater citizen participation and community partnerships in crime resolution and prevention, in essence fostering new relationships between police departments and the communities they serve (Skolnick and Bayley, 1986; Bayley, 1994). Such reform has moved along two separate but related problem-oriented and community-oriented policing tracks.