A previous chapter (Korneyev, Chapter 1) presented the ground plan of the superfamily Tephritoidea and its main phylogenetic clusters, including the family Tephritidae. It was hypothesized that the family Pyrgotidae is the sister group of the Tephritidae, and that the latter family must be expanded to incorporate the Tachiniscidae which actually are aberrant members of the group previously known as Ortalotrypetini.