Schiner is the largest and most economically important genus of Tephritidae in the Americas, including major pest species such as the Mexican, Caribbean, and South American fruit flies. The closely related genus


Gerstaecker also contains economically important species, including the papaya fruit fly. Despite their economic status, little has been published about the phylogeny of




, as is true for most groups of Tephritidae. In this chapter, we analyze the relationships among the species of these two genera based on morphological character data, including new as well as previously published information. We also summarize host plant data at the level of plant family and discuss several trends in host plant relationships.