Loew. In recent years, several phylogenetic studies of tephritid taxa have involved molecular methods.

A number of studies of many tephritid groups have employed isozyme analysis. Morgante et al. (1980) and Steck (1991) both used isozymes to look at relationships among selected subsets of


spp., but their studies were not designed to be comprehensive across the genus. More recently, phylogenetic studies using DNA sequence data have been employed to examine tephritid relationships (Han and McPheron 1994; 1997; and Chapter 5; Soto-Adames et al. 1994; McPheron and Han 1997; Smith and Bush 1997; and Chapter 9). These studies have initially focused on identifying the phylogenetic level at which certain molecules may be informative and, in some cases, discussing the relationships that are confidently supported by these sequence data. By far, most of the information from these molecular systematic studies to date has come from analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences.