The information age has made the electronic storage of large amounts of data eﬀortless. The proliferation of documents available on the Internet, corporate Intranets, news wires, and elsewhere is overwhelming. Technological
T&F Cat # C6847 Chapter: 20 page: 485 date: August 5, 2009
T&F Cat # C6847 Chapter: 20 page: 486 date: August 5, 2009
advances and professional competition have contributed to the large volume of scientiﬁc articles, making it impossible for researchers to keep up with the literature. This information overload also exists in the biomedical ﬁeld, where scientiﬁc publications and other forms of text-based data are produced at an unprecedented rate due to growing research activities in the recent past. The number of text documents disseminating knowledge in this area has gone up manifolds. Most scientiﬁc knowledge is registered in publications and other unstructured representations that make it diﬃcult to use and to integrate the information with other sources (e.g., biological databases).