The peace agreements reached in 1991 and 1996, respectively, between the governments of El Salvador and Guatemala and representatives of the armed opposition in those countries, led to two of the more recent and comprehensive efforts to advance toward police reform in Latin America. In both cases, the respective agreements stipulated the creation of new civil forces to replace police institutions controlled by the military, and which had a reputation for repressive, politicized actions incompatible with a democratic system. These reforms involved a variety of international actors and arose parallel to

Introduction 289 The Origin of the Police Reform Process 291 The Community Policing Model in Western Europe and North America 292 Community Policing in Latin America 294

The Case of São Paulo, Brazil 294 The Case of Villa Nueva, Guatemala 296 The Case of Bogotá, Colombia 297 The Case of Belo Horizonte, Brazil 298

Problems of Implementation 299 Institutional Obstacles to Change 299 The Relationship between Police and Community 302 Working with Other Public Entities 304

Results of the Community Policing Programs 305 Conclusion 307 References 308

criminal justice reforms that consisted of the introduction of oral trials and accusatory systems (Stanley, 1999, pp. 113-134; see also Neild, 2002).