This chapter presents a general overview of biomass energy in Brazil, including possible future outcomes, depending on adopted public policies and regulatory actions. Recent data are presented and discussed, and current policies and practices are also critically evaluated. We deal with general issues concerning biomass energy, with particular reference to the sugar and alcohol, paper and pulp, and iron and steel industrial sectors. We highlight the most important issues in each of these three industrial branches, which are highly dependent on biomass resources as raw material and energy (these individual sectors are discussed in more detail in later chapters).