Tropical America (TA) comprises Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America, excluding Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay. It covers 1,688 million ha representing 11 percent of the world continental area, and is a home to 432 million people representing 8 percent of the total world population. Forests cover 41 percent of its territory-a very high proportion compared with the world proportion in forests (28 percent)—and represent 22 percent of the world forest area. Consequently, renewable water resources in the region represent 22 percent of the world water resources. The per capita water resources in TA (35,405 m3) are almost five times the corresponding world average of 7,176 m3. TA’s agricultural land area is 548 Mha corresponding to 32 percent of its territory and to 11 percent of the world agricultural land area. Of its 432 million inhabitants, 100 millions (23 percent) are farmers, who live on agricultural and livestock production activities, and represent 4 percent of the world population in agriculture. TA’s agricultural land includes crop, pasture (both native and introduced), and agro-silvo-pastoral land uses (Table 13.1).