Dieter Zapf, Jordi Escartín, Ståle Einarsen, Helge Hoel, and Maarit Vartia
This chapter aims at summarising some descriptive empirical fi ndings of bullying in the workplace. We will start with the frequency and the duration of bullying. This is followed by an examination of the number, gender, and status of bullies and victims; the distribution of bullying across industries and occupations; and the use of various categories of bullying. The empirical basis of this chapter is restricted to studies carried out in Europe (see Table 3.3, Appendix, for an overview of the included studies).