The study of ecosystems from a holistic point of view implies the analysis of the relations between the elements of the entire whole. As pointed out by E. P. Odum, “[T]he old folk wisdom about the forest being more than just a collection of trees is indeed the first working principle for ecology” (Odum 1977). Ecosystems are generally organized hierarchically, and an important consequence of this type of organization is that new properties emerge whenever parts are combined to form a larger entity. Systems characterized by selforganizing behaviors that build gradients and order from thermodynamic equilibrium (disorder) show common patterns: certain collective features emerge and similar attributes can be observed, even between very different environments (Tiezzi 2006). Such behavior is frequent in living systems and ecosystems, which also show enormous creativity in their evolutionary 114paths. In spite of the wide variability of choices typical of natural systems, such oriented trends are strongly present.