INTRODUCTION Guinea pigs were among the rst laboratory animals used as an experimental model of human tuberculosis. Approximately 20 years before Robert Koch used the guinea pig to isolate and ultimately identify the tubercle bacillus as the causative agent of human tuberculosis, John Burton Sanderson and Wilson Fox independently used the guinea pig to document some of the rst detailed descriptions of the microscopic lesions of “articial tuberculosis” (Sanderson, 1867; Fox, 1868; Koch et al., 1982).