This chapter deals with the history of rice in Africa. The great desert of Sahara divides the continent into two broad regions. In the north of Sahara desert, rice has been grown mainly in the valley of River Nile in Egypt. In sub-Saharan Africa, rice was traditionally cultivated in West Africa and in the Madagascar Island in East Africa. In West Africa, rice is grown mainly in the valleys of river Senegal and river Gambia, in the inner delta area of river Niger and around Lake Chad. In the east Africa, the only country with a long history of rice cultivation is the Madagascar Island. The history of rice cultivation in Tanzania is very recent.