Th is chapter briefl y summarises the chapter of the same title by Wake in ‘Th e Biology and Evolution of Lungfi shes’ (Bemis et al... 1987). New, largely unpublished, data is included on the development of the gonads in Neoceratodus, the location of the adrenal medulla equivalent and seasonal changes in mature ovaries and testes also of Neoceratodus. Keywords: kidney, testes, ovaries, adrenal medulla, seasonal reproduction

Marvalee Wake has provided excellent descriptions of the urogenital systems of all three genera of extant lungfi sh, including coverage of all descriptions previous to her own, in ‘Th e Biology and Evolution of Lungfi shes’ (Bemis et al. 1987). In this chapter I will briefl y summarise Wake’s descriptions, adding observations of my own on Neoceratodus and any new information published since the mid 1980s that is not already included in the chapter on the endocrine system in this volume. Th e reader is directed to the appropriate section of the chapter on “Endocrine Systems”, which contains the most recent functional studies on lungfi sh gonads, kidneys and adrenals.