Since 2004 WWF Greece has started a survey of the poorly known wetlands of the Greek islands, aiming to assess their status and ensure their conservation. We identified 685 wetlands larger than 0.1 ha at 67 islands of the Aegean archipelago. Among them there are also artificial water bodies, created by hydraulic constructions, as well as by mining works and excavations for aggregates. Lately, the number of these is increasing in order to meet the large fresh water needs of these islands. We located 186 artificial water bodies of 8 types, in 26 islands covering a total area of 918 ha. In this paper we assess the several types of water bodies as wildlife habitats; we discuss their environmental significance for wildlife, as well as their impact upon the downstream natural wetlands; and we propose the most ecologically sound types from a conservation-of-biodiversity point of view. It is not advisable to construct more dams. Off-stream reservoirs with or without buried membrane liming are more ecologically sound and can better serve wildlife needs.