Although conifers are generally regarded as undomesticated trees, genetic improvement through breeding, selection and testing has had a signifi cant impact on the productivity and quality of plantations established in a wide variety of species worldwide. Many conifers have been the target

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of tree improvement efforts over the last 50 years, and many of these are now well into their second, third or even fourth cycle of breeding. In the context of these well-established programs, emerging genomic tools offer the greatest potential for immediate impact and deployment of benefi ts to production forests.