This chapter introduces the basic ideas of adaptation analysis based on dynamic models and provides an overview of sensor monitoring techniques and applications. It deals with pattern recognition in motor and game processes. Technological solutions enabling the monitoring of human motion and physiological signals during sports and exercise are gaining increased attention as tools for preventing overload and for supporting rehabilitation in movement activities. In a typical set-up, sensors are carried by the human, mounted onto the sports equipment or deployed in the environment. They acquire the relevant motion and performance data like heart rate, velocity or reaction forces. Video-based motion analysis systems are based on optical sensors deployed in the environment. They are used to identify the position of the human body and/or how its individual limbs are configured during a motion. Inertial measurement units and inertial sensors based on wireless technologies are well suited to monitor human body segment orientations during activities in natural environments in real time.