Xiang Sean Zhou, Yiqiang Zhan, Zhigang Peng, Maneesh Dewan, Bing Jian, Arun Krishnan

Siemens Healthcare, Malvern, Pennsylvania

Martin Harder, Raphael Schwarz, Lars Lauer, Heiko Meyer

Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany

Stefan Grosskopf, Ute Feuerlein, and Hendrik Ditt

Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany

Cost-sensitive learning is a very relevant topic in the domain of medical decision support. There are many types of costs, both monetary and nonmonetary. The non-monetary costs include factors that may be difficult to quantify, such as side effects of drugs, tests, or therapy, or quality of life (QoL) [18] impact due to medical interventions, etc.