Candida spp. are widespread innocuous commensal yeasts on human skin and mucosal membranes. Th ey are also an emerging group of pathogens and cause candidiasis once the normal microfl ora of their abode is disrupted or the host immune defenses are compromised. Invasive candidiasis results in considerable morbidity and mortality in human adults and neonates requiring sensitive, rapid, and cost-eff ective diagnosis for optimum management. Initial treatment of the disease is based on clinical features which are not pathognomonic. Delayed targeted treatment may result in increased patient mortality. Also, Candida spp. diff er in their sensitivity to various antifungal therapeutic interventions requiring rapid identification of the disease-causing agents in the clinical material at species level. Such a rapid species-level diagnosis is not possible at the moment. Th is chapter presents a critical review of proteomics research so far published *Corresponding author Note: Most of this article was prepared at the Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biochemistry, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rootstown, Ohio, U.S.A. 44272.