Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal, Madrid 28040 Spain; and Department of Botany, Natural History Museum Cromwell Road

London, SW7 5BD, UK E-mail: [email protected]

The impacts of molecular approaches on fungal systematics are considered with respect to the elucidation of major evolutionary lineages, convergence and divergence of characters, generic concepts (including pleomorphism), species concepts (including cryptic species), the development of identifi cation methods, and issues arising from the discovery of unattributable environmental sequences. Th e importance of collaborations between morphosystematists and molecular biologists is emphasized, including in the development of nomenclatural systems. Attention is drawn to caveats meriting consideration when undertaking molecular systematic studies. References to examples from the primary and recent literature are included throughout.