Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) is a unique method used to obtain

atoms, ions, and small molecules from solid targets because of

its high-energy output, the ability to adjust the power of the

laser, and the purity of the final product.1,2 Most experiments on

pulsed laser-solid interaction have been carried out in vacuum

(10−4 Pa)3 or in a low pressure background gas,4 aiming at thin film fabrication and cluster formation.1 One of the advantages of

the PLA method is that stoichiometric thin films can be prepared

with the same composition as the target materials. In addition,

metals, semiconductors, and ceramics with high melting point can

be obtained at lower temperatures. However, this method has some

disadvantages, such as the size of the granules on the surface of

thin films is not even, big particles exist in the surface, and a

high vacuum environment raises the preparation cost. Also, it is

difficult to obtain a thin film with big area using the PLA method.

Some researchers have attempted to produce new materials by PLA

in a static liquid medium. Figure 11.1 shows a typical schematic

diagram of the experimental apparatus of PLA in static liquid.5

Mafune´ and coworkers prepared small silver, gold, and platinum

clusters by laser ablation of ametal plate in the aqueous solution of a

surfactant, where the clusters are encapsulated by the surfactant. At

the same time, they also researched the influence of the preparation

conditions, such as the concentration of the surfactant and the

power of laser ablation, on the stability of the nanoparticles in the

solution.5−8 Yang and coworkers prepared nanocrystalline diamond and cubic C3N4 by laser ablation of a graphite target in acetone

solution and ammonia solution, respectively.9,10,11 Iwabuchi et al.12

prepared nanosized titania particles by PLA of a rutile single-crystal

target in water. Compagnini et al.13 reported PLA of gold and

silver in several liquids (mainly water, ethanol, and chloroform).

They observed the formation of metal sols by laser ablation in

water and ethanol and the formation of chloride compound sols

by laser ablation in chloroform. This revealed that the chemical

state of the formed nanoparticles depends mainly on the chemical

reactivity of the liquid. Liang et al.14 synthesized ultrafine SnO2−x nanocrystals by PLA of a tin metal plate in aqueous solutions of

sodium dodecyl sulfate and in pure water. Yeh and coworkers15

also prepared aluminum hydroxides by laser ablation of an Al rod

immersed in water solvent. During aging, bayerite, gibbsite, and

boehmite particles were formed simultaneously.