In April 2009, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) (Farrel and Sperling, 2007a, 2007b; CARB, 2009c), and in May 2009, as part of proposed revisions to the National Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analyzed life-cycle GHG emissions for corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol (EPA, 2009). Later, CARB and the EPA revised the estimations of GHG emissions for corn and sugarcane ethanol.