This chapter provides an overview to help substation designers to identify fire protection objectives, fire hazards within the substation, and remedial measures and to evaluate the value of incorporating these measures. The recognition of the fire hazards, the risks involved, and the appropriate fire protection mitigation measures are some of the key considerations for the design and operation of new or existing substations. A substation designer must clearly understand the substation owner’s fire protection objectives before evaluating or selecting fire protection for a new and existing substation. Revenue in asset losses can be fairly easily estimated for various substation fire scenarios and can, therefore, be used in a benefit–cost analysis to justify the provision of fire protection to mitigate those critical risks. Some utilities operate in jurisdictions with mandated fire protection requirements for electrical substations. The measures to mitigate or lessen fire hazards are normally called fire protection measures.