The food processing industry (FPI) is a typical processing industry in which water plays a vital role, such as the following:

1. As one of the ingredients in processing 2. For potable purpose by the plant personnel 3. For cleaning various items, such as raw materials, ‹nished products,

packaging materials, and containers and for washing and rinsing the process equipment

4. For associated operations, such as cooling water in air conditioning and refrigeration systems and as boiler feedwater for steam generation

Thus, the process industries consume a huge amount of water. Even a conservative estimate puts the water consumption rate in most of the food industries in the order of 1 million gallons of potable water per day. The typical rates of water consumption in various process industries are shown in Table 10.1. Much of it is discharged in the form of ef–uent, which needs to be processed before being discharged or reused. No efŠuents are discharged from previously mentioned applications (1), (2), and (4). However, those discharged from (3) require processing. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPTS 1974) indicated the possible quantities of wastewater that are generated in 10 specialty FPIs (Table 10.2).