Impact angle control guidance laws have a variety of applications for missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles. For antiship or antitank missiles, terminal impact angle control could maximize the effectiveness of warheads by attacking the weakest part of a target. For inertially or global positioning system-guided missiles, vertical approach to the target can reduce the miss distance by nullifying the effect of navigation error in the vertical channel. Impact angle control may nd useful applications for a ground target not only to ensure that the warhead does not ricochet off the target but also to achieve maximum penetration performance. Impact angle control laws can also be used as a convenient tool for waypoint guidance or path planning of unmanned aerial vehicles. With these diverse application areas, there have been extensive studies on the issue. Among them, the optimal guidance laws (OGLs) with impact angle control, derived in the framework of o ptimal


10.1 LQ Optimal Control Problem and Its Solution ......................................344 10.2 Optimal Impact Angle Control Law for Lag-Free Missile (OGL) .......346