ABSTRACT

Electronic waste or e-waste refers to end-of-use electronic products, including computers, printers, television sets, refrigerators, mobile phones, and toys; these common consumer products contain a variety of potential environment contaminants such as heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Disposal of e-waste

CONTENTS

Introduction ......................................................................................................... 183 Materials and Methods....................................................................................... 185

Study Areas ..................................................................................................... 185 Study Population ............................................................................................ 185 Evaluation of Physical Development Indices............................................. 185 Collection and Analysis of Samples ............................................................ 186 Statistical Analysis.......................................................................................... 186

Results and Discussion ....................................................................................... 187 Participant’s Characteristics ......................................................................... 187 Manganese Levels in Blood .......................................................................... 187 Parameters of Renal Dysfunction ................................................................ 187 Correlation Analysis of β2-MG, RBP, and MnB .......................................... 188

Acknowledgment ................................................................................................ 189 References ............................................................................................................. 190

is an increasing global environmental problem. The current global production of e-waste is estimated to be 20-25 million tons per year, and it has become the fastest growing waste stream in the world (Robinson 2009). The techniques used in recycling of e-waste are often primitive. Guiyu, which is located in Shantou City, South China, is infamous for its involvement in primitive e-waste processing and recycling activities that cause severe damage to the environment and the health of local residents. Several studies reported elevated levels of toxic heavy metals in air, road dust, soil, and sediment of Guiyu (Deng et al. 2006, Wong et al. 2007b,c, Leung et al. 2008). In our previous investigations, we found that children and neonates from Guiyu had elevated levels of blood lead and other metals (Huo et al. 2007, Li et al. 2008, Zheng et al. 2008). It was reported that dissolved Mn concentrations were higher in Lianjiang (206-246 μg/L) and Nanyang River (188-217 μg/L) within Guiyu than in the reservoir (2-6 μg/L) outside of Guiyu (Wong et al. 2007a). Elevated levels of Mn in human hair were found in Taizhou, another e-waste recycling area in Zhejiang province in China (Wang et al. 2009).