Once a decision is made to conduct microbiological R&D within an organization, the process of building infrastructure, stafng positions, and developing work™ow systems must begin. Rather than a sequential step-by-step process, such an endeavor is more likely to be a long-term project moving forward in all aspects toward suitable and sustainable levels of productivity. The laboratory cannot function without a team, but the team cannot function without a laboratory. Similarly, the laboratory needs equipment, materials, supplies, and systems for work™ow and reporting, but such cannot be made of use without a team of laboratorians or technicians to work and then produce results. In some organizations, it may be necessary to have a data-reporting mechanism in place to help justify expenditures on team, laboratory, and supplies. In other instances, seed money may be required to get the project up and running. The development of team, laboratory, equipment/ supplies, contract partnerships, and reporting mechanisms, concurrently in many cases, may be required by the organization and can be the most difcult aspect of building microbial research capabilities. In short, getting started requires lots of planning, preparation, and hard work.