Carbon nanomaterials with different structures and forms are a perspective for implant applications. Conventional carbon ϐibers have been considered for hard [30] and soft [32] tissue implants due to the excellent mechanical properties, such as ϐlexural and fatigue strength and high strength/weight ratio. According to Chlopek et al. [12], there are many examples of possible ϐields of carbon biomaterials applications (Table 10.1). Rough surface of implants for hard tissue engineering is attractive for tissue growth, but unfortunately supports more bacteria adhesion because the larger surface area increases the possibility of bacteria contact and more places suitable for bacteria to stay and colonize. The surface roughness has a signiϐicant effect on the bacteria adhesion when

the surface roughness is closed to a cell size of about 1.0 μm, due to possible bacteria entrapment [16]. The carbon thin ϐilm, for example, has antibacterial characteristics [66], which is very attractive for biomedical applications. Recently it was reported that the antibacterial property of stainless steel coated nanocrystalline diamond ϐilm was better than titanium [26].