Current research focuses on improving the mechanical performance and biocompatibility of metal/alloy-based systems through variations in alloy composition, microstructure, and surface treatment [24, 27, 28, 34, 38, 47, 56]. In the case of titanium, signiϐicant efforts go into enhancing the strength characteristics of commercial purity grades in order to avoid potential biotoxicity of alloying elements, especially in dental implants [2, 4, 5, 17, 33]. To enhance the physicochemical and mechanical performance of implant materials through microstructure control, the top-down approaches known as mechanical alloying (see Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9) and severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques were applied. Recent studies clearly proved that nanostructuring of titanium can considerably improve not only the mechanical properties, but also the biocompatibility [17, 27, 28, 34, 38, 40, 48, 50−54]. On the other hand, this approach also has the beneϐit of enhancing the biological response of the cp titanium surface [27, 28, 40, 53].