Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common adult kidney tumour and accounts for 2 per cent of all cancers diagnosed. Large epidemiological studies have identified cigarette smoking as the strongest known risk factor in non-occupation-associated RCC, but additional factors include hypertension and obesity, and there is an increased risk in patients with end-stage renal failure.1

Occupational exposure to hydrocarbons (trichloroethylene) is associated with an increased risk of RCC.