Cirrhosis from hepatitis B (HBV) is less common than cirrhosis from other forms of hepatitis, but due to the number of people infected with HBV, it is thought to be the most common cause of HCC. Vaccination programs for hepatitis B as a long-term solution are yielding very positive results, but there are already many developing cases of liver cancer from this single source. ere is as yet no vaccination for hepatitis C (HCV), alcoholic liver disease is very common, and the incidence of fatty liver disease that leads to cirrhosis is arguably overtaking all other causes for this cancer. Etiologies are varied and are changing with the population and risk factors. With the rapid pace of advancements in molecular biology, researchers and clinicians now understand how diverse their target in fact is. is makes individualized treatment both critical and extremely challenging from a pharmacologic point of view. e situation as outlined herein has thus led to an enormous eort from many dierent angles for treatment.