In a child with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), the primary goal of therapy is to prevent pyelonephritis, because repeated upper urinary tract infection (UTI) can lead to renal scarring, hypertension, reduced somatic growth, renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease. In addition, reflux-related complications during pregnancy may occur. If a child already has reduced renal function, then additional treatment may be necessary to preserve existing renal function as the child grows.