Human forensic toxicology focuses on the determination of pharmacological effects of alcohol, abused drugs, medications, or other possibly toxic compounds. In most cases, police or prosecutors give the order for a scientiﬁc investigation in a forensic case. The analytical results from the laboratory and its scientiﬁc expertise will in most cases be used in court. Consequently, all technical, analytical, and expert work needs to be fulﬁlled with the utmost professional care. A very important part is the chain of custody of evidence, where at any moment in time the origin of every sample and any analytical result must be unequivocally clear. Fields of action comprise the analytical investigation and evaluation of biological samples or suspect items from living or dead persons. Drug abuse and inﬂuence of substances that act on the human central nervous system during or just before a certain event (such as trafﬁc accidents, homicide, and submission of sedating drugs) are the most common issues, belonging to the ﬁeld of behavioral forensic toxicology. To fulﬁll these tasks, the two biological ﬂuids, urine and blood, are the most frequently used specimens. Recent scientiﬁc research also involves new specimens such as sweat and saliva (oral ﬂuid). When investigating on a presumably unnatural death, additional samples from the autopsy (e.g., gastric content and organ tissues) are used. In this ﬁeld of postmortem toxicology, the scientiﬁc goal usually is to conﬁrm or exclude intoxication as the most plausible cause of death. This task is often complicated by various biological, chemical, and physical effects that can occur postmortem (1-7).