Dry, scaly skin is characterized by a decrease in the water retention capacity of the stratum corneum (SC),1 with water content diminished to less than 10%. Barrier function of the SC is usually declined, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is increased because of an abnormality on barrier homeostasis.2 People feel tightness of their skin, and the skin surface becomes rough, scaly, and sensitive. Hyperkeratosis, abnormal scaling, and epidermal hyperplasia are usually observed in the dry skin.2 Keratinization also shows abnormal features.2 These phenomena are commonly observed in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.3 Dermatitis induced by environmental factors such as exposure to chemicals, low humidity, and UV radiation also shows these features. Thus, many researchers have been investigating the cause and treatment of dry skin, and there is currently great interest in adequate model systems for dry skin studies. In this chapter, I will describe several model systems of dry skin for clinical research of dermatitis associated with skin surface dryness and also mention recent studies to improve the dry skin.