Fiber-optic sensors based on the stimulated Brillouin-scattering effect can become a truly disruptive technology in the field of structural health monitoring. This chapter focuses on some of the main research trends currently unfolding in the field of Brillouin distributed sensors (BDSs) sensing. It presents an overview of the fundamentals and current research lines in BDSs. The chapter highlights the experimental setup of a simplified Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) system using the RF shaping method. Current research trends in BDS are defined by the needs of the potential application fields of this sensing technology. Many potential applications of BDS require the highest possible spatial resolution to obtain an accurate assessment of the distribution of a given measurand. A microwave generator is deployed to generate RF signals at frequencies close to the Brillouin frequency shift of the sensing fiber. Another approach to simplify the setup of BOTDA sensors is to deploy alternative Brillouin spectrum characterization methods.