This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book presents a variety of perspectives on the challenges that science is facing due to this rapid increase in data volumes and complexities, as well as discussions of leaders in the field of data-intensive science (DIS) on current leading edge technologies and their vision for the future. However, given the complexity of these scientific grand challenges, it is clear that the teams that can effectively transform data into knowledge are going to be the leaders in the future of science. Capabilities are constantly being provided or enhanced, and the amount of information that can be effectively analyzed by science teams continues to increase. Whether one will eventually evolve into a comprehensive solution for DIS or a new approach, not yet developed, will ultimately address these challenges is yet to be seen.